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Foreword to the scientific article.
Open new laws and mathematical formulas on hydrodynamics, which are taken from the description of the application for invention № 2008137340 from 19 September 2008 year and popular form set out in «Международном научно-исследовательском журнале», № 7-14 2013 year Part 1 Page 7. Certificate of state registration of PI № ФС 77-51217 ISSN 2303-9868.

UDC 53.02

Article  about  the  new  laws  and  mathematical  formulas  on  hydrodynamics.

Abstract.The article is dedicated to the discovery of new laws of hydrodynamics determining the period of time required to move one of the layer of water flow and torque to move the water flow, or liquid mixture flowing in the variable section of the river channel or pipe. New laws work and energy to determine the flow of water or a liquid mixture flowing in the variable section of the river channel or pipe. According to the new laws of hydrodynamics and mathematical formulas, considering the total loss in the AC section or the horizontal tube, the mouth of the can to determine torque, work and energy of the liquid mixture passing through the variable section of the river or pipe. All these laws are necessary in order to better understand the mechanism of movement of the fluid in the variable section of the river channel or pipeline, which often use Bernoulli's law, which is, as it were, a consequence of the law of conservation of energy. It should be noted that the law of Daniel Bernoulli does not meet the dimensional units of physical quantities and do not take into account a lot of losses in water flow or movement of the liquid mixture in the variable section of the pipeline, and even more so, the law can not determine the moment of force, work or energy of moving water flow the bed of the river.

Hydrodynamics - section hydraulics, which studies the laws of motion of an incompressible fluid, and its interaction with the stationary and moving surfaces. From the point of view of mechanics, fluid substance called, which in equilibrium no shear stresses . Liquid has the properties of flow and take the form of the vessel in which it is poured , or take the form of a fixed or movable surface, through which it passes. Hydraulic methods can also explore the movement of gases, if the speed of this movement is much less than the speed of sound, since the gas velocity close to the speed of sound or more than the beginning to play a significant role compressibility of the gas, where hydraulic methods are no longer applicable. Practical applications of hydrodynamics are extremely diverse. Hydrodynamics used in the design of ships and aircraft, based pipelines, pumps, hydraulic turbines and weirs, in the study of ocean currents and river sediments, the study of groundwater filtration and oil in underground deposits, and so on ...

In the flow of incompressible fluids typically have different flow and strength. For example, laminar or turbulent flow, which includes the pressure force of resistance, viscosity, gravity and so on... Respect their proportionality means complete hydrodynamic similarity. Implementation in practice of the full hydrodynamic similarity is very difficult, so usually deal with a partial (incomplete) likeness in which a major proportion observed, the main forces.

Laminar fluid flow over a flat surface, which is not any bends around obstacles and moves defined layers is more predictable and predicted. Whereas turbulent fluid flow, accompanied by intense agitation and erratic motion of the molecules of the liquid and gas velocity and pressure pulsations . When the turbulent fluid flow velocity vectors are not only axial, but also normal to the axis of the channel components, so along with the longitudinal movement of the main fluid channel along transverse movements occur (stirring ) and rotatory motion of individual volumes of fluid. This explains the velocity and pressure pulsations. Turbulence can also occur in any violation of homogeneity of the medium, such as cavitation ( boiling ). Rollover and destruction surf occurs multiphase mixture of water, air and foam. Instant environment settings become chaotic.

Simulation of turbulence - one of the most difficult and unresolved problems in fluid dynamics and theoretical physics. Turbulence occurs always in excess of certain critical parameters: the speed and the size of the body or decrease the viscosity of the fluid. It can also occur when highly irregular boundary and initial conditions on the boundary of the body. Or may fade under hard acceleration on the surface of the stream, with a strong stratification of the medium. Because turbulence is characterized by random behavior of the instantaneous values of velocity, pressure and temperature at the point of liquid or gas, this means that for the same conditions detailed picture of the distribution of these units in the liquid will vary and virtually never repeated. Therefore , the instantaneous velocity distribution at various points in a turbulent flow is usually of no interest , and average values are important. Problem description of hydrodynamic turbulence is, in particular, and that is not yet possible only on the basis of hydrodynamic equations to predict exactly when the turbulent regime should start and what it should happen without experimental data. On powerful computers to simulate Can only certain types of flows. As a result, we have to be content with only approximate and phenomenological description.

With the invention the hydro-thermal cavitation heater and hydroelectric dam-opened new laws and mathematical formulas on hydrodynamics, I present for your consideration.

1. The new law determining the period of time required to move one layer of water investigated laminar fluid flow can be formulated as follows:

The period of time required to move one layer investigated laminar water flow is equal to the square root of the product of the sum of the mass of the layer of water flow and mass layer located above the test bed for the amount of water flow height of the layer and the layer height is above the investigated layer of water flow and inversely proportional to the difference between the forces total water flow and the loss of power in the displacement of each layer.

where:

t - period of time required to move one layer investigated laminar water flow, s

m в layer - the layer is above the mass of the investigated layer of water flow, m

h в layer - the layer height is above the investigated layer of water flow, m

Δ F - loss of strength of each layer is displaced by the water flow, N

h и layer - the height of the layer of water flow, m

m и layer - the mass of the layer of water flow, m

F - force for moving the whole water flow N.

We must realize that the water flow in the river channel moves with different acceleration. For example, the upper layer of the water flow will flow faster than the middle layer and the middle layer of the water flow will flow faster than the lower layer of the water flow. To confirm the time required to move the one of the layer of aqueous fluid flow visually determine the maximum water flow operation, which moves in a laminar flow having a riverbed:

V - water flow rate of the river bed = 1 m/s

a - width of the water flow of the river bed = 5 m

h - height of the water flow of the river bed = 1 m

L - Length of water flow riverbed = 1 m

We define the amount of water that flows through the river bed for 1 s:

V = (h ∙ a) ∙ L = (1 м ∙ 5 м) ∙ 1 м = 5 м³

where:

V - volume of water that flows through the river bed, m³

h - height of the water flow of the river bed = 1 m

a - width of the water flow of the river bed = 5 m

L - Length of water flow riverbed = 1 m.

From physics we know that the density of water at 20°С, рв = 0,99823 г/см³ or 998,23 kg/m³.

We define the weight of water having a volume of 5 m³, which extends beyond one s:

G = V ∙ pв = 5 м³ ∙ 998,23 кг/м³ = 4991,15 кг

where:

G - weight measured volume of water flow, kg

рв - the density of water at 20°C = 998,23 kg/m³

V - volume measured by the volume of water = 5 m³.

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◄|| Article about the new laws and mathematical formulas on hydrodynamics ||►

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